- 19:7-13 (Sefardim); 19:7-19 (Ashkenazim)
- 19:14-19 (S); 19:20 – 20:17 (v. 14 Heb.) (A)
- 19:20- 20:17 (v. 14 Heb.) (S); 20:18-21 (15-18 Heb.) (A)
- Maftir: 20:24-26 (21-23 Heb.) (S); 20:22-26 (19-23 Heb.) (A)
It remains a great source of amazement to the ancient and modern Jewish sages how the most important Torah portion in the Torah – The Mattan Ha Torah – “The giving of the Torah” could be named after the gentile – Yithro.
This Torah portion reminds us once again that righteous gentiles have always and could again play a critical role to cause the Torah to flourish again among Jews and non- Jews – may it be His will in our time for this to happen – Rom 11:14.
The name Yithro comes from a root word “yeter” (S3499) The Kenite Hypothesis, which is based on clear teachings of the Bible, states that the ancient Hebrews did not know Elohim by the name YHVH (The four-letter Hebrew name of the Eternal One) until the time of the Exodus. This name is often translated as "the LORD" in Bibles. In the Kenite Hypothesis, it was the Kenites who first worshiped YHVH. Moses sojourned among the Kenites and among them he received the revelation that the Elohim of the Kenites, YHVH the same Elohim worshiped by his forefathers Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, by a different name, that of El Shadday, meaning "Elohim Almighty." – Shemot/Ex 6:3 –“ Va yera”which can also mean “remnant.” Will there be a Torah observant “ex-gentile” remnant in the last days that together with a revived Jewish remnant, usher in the Messianic Torah reign and bring “tikkun” restoration to all the earth?
Listen carefully to the following prophetic word given to us from the Torah:
It is said of Yithro in Bamidbar 10:29-31 reads, “And Moshe said … We are journeying to the place about which YHVH said, I will give it you; come with us, and we will do you good … And he [Yitro] said to him, I will not go; but I will depart to my own land, and to my kindred. And he [Moshe] said, Leave us not, I pray you; for you know how we are to camp in the wilderness, והיית לנו לעינים and you may be to us instead of eyes.”
Rashi (Bamidbar Numbers10:31) reads, “You will be our guide … Another explanation: [the passuk is in] the future tense—If anything should be hidden from our eyes, you shall enlighten us.
Haftarah: Isaiah 6:1-13 (Sefardim); 6:1 – 7:6; 9:6-7 (5-6 Heb.) (Ashkenazim)
Aliyah Rishon 18:1-12
Exo 18:1 And Yithro, the priest of Miḏyan, Mosheh’s father-in-law, heard of all that Elohim had done for Mosheh and for Yisra’ĕl His people, that יהוה had brought Yisra’ĕl out of Mitsrayim.
It is well documented that Yitro was a Kenite. Kenites were descendants of Cain. They were willing to associate and help the children of Yisrael. Sadly their history is seldom spoken of. Some interesting research has been done in this regard. Below is a quote from a book written by a scholar who believes there was a believing remnant from the descendants of Cain that remained true to the One Elohim of Yisrael. This remnant can be traced to the Rechabites that still exist in places today.
Here in lies a profound message there has always been a faithful priesthood who have been partakers of the Abrahamic covenant that come from outside the nation of Yisrael. These have been willingly grafted into the Hebrew roots of the faith and have become citizens of the commonwealth of Yisrael.
Exo 18:2 And Yithro, Mosheh’s father-in-law, took Tsipporah, the wife of Mosheh – after he had sent her back,
Commentary: N Lawrence
18:2–3, There is indication here that Moses divorced his wife after their altercation over the circumcision of their sons in 4:24–26. The phrase sent away/back in verse two is shilluach/ (shin-lamed-lamed-vav-chet, shil-loo’-akh), which according to Strong’s and Gesenius can refer to divorce. Shilluach is from shalakh/ (shin-lamed-chet), a basic verb meaning “to send” (note passive participle ie an action which was done to her ie she received her marching orders) where in Isaiah 50:1 and Jeremiah 3:1 the prophets use it referring to YHVH’s divorce from the House of Israel/Ephraim. Though rabbinical commentators Rashi and Hirsch fail to note the possibility of Moses’ divorce (Jewish Torah commentators tend to gloss over the faults of their great heroes), Baal HaTurim notes this possibility in his commentary. Yet in Exodus18:2, YHVH still views Zipporah as Moses’ wife. What’s going on here? Zipporah seems to have evidenced reluctance at obeying YHVH’s command to circumcise their sons (4:25), so did Moses put her away (divorce her), as a result? Was Moses, the human “savior” of Israel from Egypt and an antetype (prophetic forerunner) of Yeshua the Messianic Savior (Deut 18:15–19), having to deal with a rebellious wife even as Yeshua had to deal with his rebellious wife Israel and eventually had to put her away? “Perhaps we see in this week’s and next week’s Torah portion how Moshe takes her back. We read in Numbers 12:1 how Moshe took another wife (Kushite woman)”
In next week’s Torah portion –“ Mishphatim” - Exo 21:10 “If he takes another wife, her food, her covering, and her marriage rights are not to be diminished.
Maybe there is a prophetic reference here to the gentile part of the Bride of Messiah. If one part of his bride is not acceptable to him, he may take another bride without diminishing the rights of the first one.
This may explain why so many non-Torah observant Christians are blessed today, but in reality they do not want to be part of a Torah observant bride and subsequently will not be included as the part of the first bride(wife) of Messiah.
Exo 18:3 and her two sons, of whom the name of one was Gĕreshom, for he said, “I have been a sojourner in a foreign land,”
With the name, Gershom Moshe indicated that he had always been a sojourner in this world – even before his flight from Egypt – because a tzaddik’s (righteous man’s) true world is not from this world.
The verb “garish” is also associated with the name “Gershom.” This verb means to divorce oneself from something, in the case of a “ger” it is one who has divorced himself from his culture and religion and has taken on the faith and culture of Avraham Yitzchak and Yakov and the Torah of Moshe.
Exo 18:4 and the name of the other was Eliʽezer, for he said, “The Elohim of my father was my help, and delivered me from the sword of Pharaoh.”
Eliezer comes from two Hebrew words “El” which can mean “Elohim” and it can also mean “strength or mighty.” “Ezer” “means aid or helper.”
“Eliezer can either mean Elohim is my help or my help or aid is mighty”
Exo 18:5 Yithro, Mosheh’s father-in-law, came with his sons and his wife to Mosheh in the wilderness, where he was encamped at the mountain of Elohim.
Exo 18:6 And he had said to Mosheh, “I, your father-in-law Yithro, am coming to you with your wife and her two sons with her.”
Note in vs 2,5 &6 The Torah repeats that Yitro brought back Moshe’s family. The Torah wants to draw our attention to this fact because it is repeated three times. From this we may deduce that Moshe’s family will all come together again at the appointed time.
Exo 18:7 And Mosheh went out to meet his father-in-law, and bowed down, and kissed him. And they asked each other about their welfare, and they went into the tent. (Yitro may not have been a pagan priest)
Exo 18:8 And Mosheh told his father-in-law all that יהוה had done to Pharaoh and to the Mitsrites for Yisra’ĕl’s sake, all the hardship that had come upon them on the way, and how יהוה had delivered them.
Exo 18:9 And Yithro rejoiced for all the good which יהוה had done for Yisra’ĕl, whom He had delivered out of the hand of the Mitsrites.
Exo 18:10 And Yithro said, “Blessed be יהוה, who has delivered you out of the hand of the Mitsrites and out of the hand of Pharaoh, and who has delivered the people from under the hand of the Mitsrites.
Exo 18:11 “Now I know that יהוה is greater than all the mighty ones, indeed in the matter in which they acted proudly, above them.”
Exo 18:12 Then Yithro, the father-in-law of Mosheh, brought a burnt offering and other slaughterings unto Elohim. And Aharon came with all the elders of Yisra’ĕl to eat bread with the father-in-law of Mosheh before Elohim.
For Yithro to present such an offering he must have left his pagan ways (if he did have pagan ways) to follow the way of the Elohim of Yisrael or had he been deeply influenced by Moshe during the 40 year period Moshe lived in Midyan with Yithro?
Aliyah Sheni 18:13-23
Exo 18:13 And it came to be, on the next day, that Mosheh sat to rightly rule the people. And the people stood before Mosheh from morning until evening.
Exo 18:14 And when the father-in-law of Mosheh saw all that he did for the people, he said, “What is this that you are doing for the people? Why do you sit by yourself, and all the people stand before you from morning until evening?”
Exo 18:15 And Mosheh said to his father-in-law, “Because the people come to me to seek Elohim.
Exo 18:16 “When they have a matter, they come to me, and I rightly rule between one and another, and make known the laws of Elohim and His Torot.”
Exo 18:17 And the father-in-law of Mosheh said to him, “What you are doing is not good.
Exo 18:18 “Both you and these people with you shall certainly wear yourselves out. For the matter is too heavy for you. You are not able to do it by yourself.
Exo 18:19 “Now listen to my voice. Let me counsel you and Elohim be with you: Stand before Elohim for the people, and you shall bring the matters to Elohim.
Exo 18:20 “And you shall enlighten them concerning the laws and the Torot, and show them the way in which they should walk and the work which they do.
Exo 18:21 “But you yourself, seek out from all the people able men, who fear Elohim, men of truth, hating unfair gain. And place these over them to be rulers of thousands, rulers of hundreds, rulers of fifties, and rulers of tens.
Exo 18:22 “And they shall rightly rule the people at all times. And it shall be that they bring every great matter to you, but they themselves rightly rule every small matter. So, make it lighter for yourself, for they shall bear with you.
Exo 18:23 “If you do this word, and Elohim shall command you, then you shall be able to stand and all this people also go to their place in peace.”
Yithro is introducing Yahshua’s pattern of making disciples. The Torah was always meant to be lived out in a community of people who are in a dynamic relationship with one another and with the leaders who have paid a price to lead and train disciples or talmadim in the truth of Torah. This was always the way of YHVH and YHVH’s Kingdom and rule will be established in such a way. This kind of a people will not only rule themselves effectively but also the nations.
Aliyah Shlishi 18:24-27
This kind of lifestyle observance of Torah would produce men and woman who would take responsibility for proper functioning of the household of faith.
Eph 4:11 And He Himself gave some as emissaries, and some as prophets, and some as evangelists, and some as shepherds and teachers
Eph 4:12 for the perfecting of the set-apart ones, to the work of service to a building up of the body of the Messiah,
Eph 4:13 until we all come to the unity of the belief and of the knowledge of the Son of Elohim, to a perfect man, to the measure of the stature of the completeness of Messiah,
Eph 4:14 so that we should no longer be children, tossed and borne about by every wind of teaching, by the trickery of men, in cleverness, unto the craftiness of leading astray,1 Footnote: 15:6, also 2 Cor. 10:5, 2 Cor. 11:3-14, Gal. 1:6-9, 2 Tim. 3:1-8, 2 Tim. 4:2-4, 2 Peter 2:2-22, Jud. vv. 10-19.
Eph 4:15 but, maintaining the truth in love, we grow up in all respects into Him who is the head, Messiah,
Eph 4:16 from whom the entire body, joined and knit together by what every joint supplies, according to the working by which each part does its share, causes growth of the body for the building up of itself in love.
Eph 4:17 So this I say, and witness in the Master, that you should no longer walk as the gentiles walk,1 in the futility of their mind, Footnote: 11 Cor. 12:2, and Jer. 10:2.
Eph 4:18 having been darkened in their understanding, having been estranged from the life of Elohim, because of the ignorance that is in them, because of the hardness of their heart,
Exo 18:24 And Mosheh listened to the voice of his father-in-law and did all that he said.
Exo 18:25 And Mosheh chose able men out of all Yisra’ĕl, and made them heads over the people: rulers of thousands, rulers of hundreds, rulers of fifties, and rulers of tens.
Exo 18:26 And they rightly ruled the people at all times – the hard matters they brought to Mosheh, but they rightly ruled every small matter themselves.
Exo 18:27 And Mosheh sent off his father-in-law, and he went away to his own land.
Aliyah Reviee 19:1-6
Exo 19:1 In the third month after the children of Yisra’ĕl had come out of the land of Mitsrayim, on this day they came to the Wilderness of Sinai.
Exo 19:2 For they set out from Rephiḏim, and had come to the Wilderness of Sinai, and camped in the wilderness. So Yisra’ĕl camped there before the mountain.
Exo 19:3 And Mosheh went up to Elohim, and יהוה called to him from the mountain, saying, “This is what you are to say to the house of Yaʽaqoḇ, and declare to the children of Yisra’ĕl:
Exo 19:4 ‘You have seen what I did to the Mitsrites, and how I bore you on eagles’ wings and brought you to Myself.
Exo 19:5 ‘And now, if you diligently obey My voice, and shall guard My covenant, then you shall be My treasured possession above all the peoples – for all the earth is Mine –
Exo 19:6 ‘and you shall be to Me a reign of priests and a set-apart nation.’ Those are the words which you are to speak to the children of Yisra’ĕl.”
A special people or “am segulah” this was a very special treasure above all other treasures a person would possess. Then it says in the Hebrew that you shall become to Me a “Mamlechet Kohanim” or kingdom of priests and a “goy kodesh” or nation of set apart ones to YHVH.
1Pe 2:9 But you are a chosen race, a royal priesthood, a set-apart nation, a people for a possession, that you should proclaim the praises of Him who called you out of darkness into His marvellous light,
Aliyah Chamishi 19:7-13
Exo 19:7 And Mosheh came and called for the elders of the people, and set before them all these words which יהוה commanded him.
Exo 19:8 And all the people answered together and said, “All that יהוה has spoken we shall do.” So Mosheh brought back the words of the people to יהוה.
Exo 19:9 And יהוה said to Mosheh, “See, I am coming to you in the thick cloud, so that the people hear when I speak with you, and believe you forever.” And Mosheh reported the words of the people to יהוה.
This thick cloud could be a reference to the marriage chuppah. YHVH now calls a people who will accept His Torah or ketubah and enter into a “marriage covenant” with Him forever.
Exo 19:10 And יהוה said to Mosheh, “Go to the people and set them apart today and tomorrow. And they shall wash their garments,
Exo 19:11 and shall be prepared by the third day. For on the third day יהוה shall come down upon Mount Sinai before the eyes of all the people.
Exo 19:12 “And you shall make a border for the people all around, saying, ‘Take heed to yourselves that you do not go up to the mountain or touch the border of it. Whoever touches the mountain shall certainly be put to death.
Exo 19:13 ‘Not a hand is to touch it, but he shall certainly be stoned or shot with an arrow, whether man or beast, he shall not live.’ When the trumpet sounds long, let them come near the mountain.”
Aliyah Shishi 19:14-19
Exo 19:14 And Mosheh came down from the mountain to the people and set the people apart, and they washed their garments.
Exo 19:15 And he said to the people, “Be prepared by the third day. Do not come near a wife.”
Exo 19:16 And it came to be, on the third day in the morning, that there were thunders and lightnings, and a thick cloud on the mountain. And the sound of the ram’s horn was very loud, and all the people who were in the camp trembled.
Exo 19:17 And Mosheh brought the people out of the camp to meet with Elohim, and they stood at the foot of the mountain.
Exo 19:18 And Mount Sinai was in smoke, all of it, because יהוה descended upon it in fire. And its smoke went up like the smoke of a furnace, and all the mountain trembled exceedingly.
Exo 19:19 And when the blast of the ram’s horn sounded long and became louder and louder, Mosheh spoke, and Elohim answered him by voice.
Aliyah Sheviee 19:20-26
Exo 19:20 And יהוה came down upon Mount Sinai, on the top of the mountain. And יהוה called Mosheh to the top of the mountain, and Mosheh went up.
Exo 19:21 And יהוה said to Mosheh, “Go down, and warn the people, lest they break through unto יהוה to see, and many of them fall.
Exo 19:22 “And let the priests who come near יהוה set themselves apart too, lest יהוה break out against them.”
Exo 19:23 And Mosheh said to יהוה, “The people are not able to come up to Mount Sinai, for You warned us, saying, ‘Make a border around the mountain and set it apart.’ ”
Exo 19:24 And יהוה said to him, “Come, go down and then come up, you and Aharon with you. But do not let the priests and the people break through to come up to יהוה, lest He break out against them.”
Exo 19:25 And Mosheh went down to the people and spoke to them.
Below is a fascinating documentary about mount Sinai in Saudi Arabia:
Exo 20:1 And Elohim spoke all these Words, saying,
Exo 20:2 “I am יהוה your Elohim, who brought you out of the land of Mitsrayim, out of the house of slavery.
Exo 20:3 “You have no other mighty ones against My face.
Exo 20:4 “You do not make for yourself a carved image, or any likeness of that which is in the heavens above, or which is in the earth beneath, or which is in the waters under the earth,
Exo 20:5 you do not bow down to them nor serve them. For I, יהוה your Elohim am a jealous Ěl, visiting the crookedness of the fathers on the children to the third and fourth generations of those who hate Me,
Exo 20:6 but showing kindness to thousands, to those who love Me and guard My commands.
Exo 20:7 “You do not bring1 the Name of יהוה your Elohim to naught, for יהוה does not leave the one unpunished who brings His Name to naught. Footnote: 1Or lift up, or take.
Exo 20:8 “Remember the Sabbath day, to set it apart.
Exo 20:9 “Six days you labour, and shall do all your work,
Exo 20:10 but the seventh day is a Sabbath1 of יהוה your Elohim. You do not do any work – you, nor your son, nor your daughter, nor your male servant, nor your female servant, nor your cattle, nor your stranger who is within your gates. Footnote: 1There are other Sabbaths, but this is the weekly Sabbath.
Exo 20:11 “For in six days יהוה made the heavens and the earth, the sea, and all that is in them, and rested the seventh day. Therefore יהוה blessed the Sabbath day and set it apart.
Exo 20:12 “Respect your father and your mother, so that your days are prolonged upon the soil which יהוה your Elohim is giving you.
Exo 20:13 “You do not murder.
Exo 20:14 “You do not commit adultery.
Exo 20:15 “You do not steal.
Exo 20:16 “You do not bear false witness against your neighbour.
Exo 20:17 “You do not covet your neighbour’s house, you do not covet your neighbour’s wife, nor his male servant, nor his female servant, nor his ox, nor his donkey, or whatever belongs to your neighbour.”
Exo 20:18 And all the people saw the thunders, the lightning flashes, the sound of the ram’s horn, and the mountain smoking. And the people saw it, and they trembled and stood at a distance,
Hebrew says “ ve kol ha am Rahim et ha kolot” means and the people SAW the voices.
How do you see a voice? The Torah was not meant just to be heard but also SEEN. Maybe this also refers to the time when the Ruach (Spirit) was poured out like tongues of fire on the people. We must remember that the giving of the Torah and Shavuot (Pentecost) are on the same day just many years apart.
Exo 20:19 and said to Mosheh, “You speak with us and we hear, but let not Elohim speak with us, lest we die.”
Exo 20:20 And Mosheh said to the people, “Do not fear, for Elohim has come to prove you, and in order that His fear be before you, so that you do not sin.”
Exo 20:21 So the people stood at a distance, but Mosheh drew near the thick darkness where Elohim was.
Exo 20:22 And יהוה said to Mosheh, “Say this to the children of Yisra’ĕl: ‘You yourselves have seen that I have spoken to you from the heavens.
Exo 20:23 ‘You do not make besides Me mighty ones of silver, and you do not make mighty ones of gold for yourselves.
Exo 20:24 ‘Make an altar of earth for Me, and you shall slaughter on it your burnt offerings and your peace offerings, your sheep and your cattle. In every place where I cause My Name to be remembered I shall come to you and bless you.
Exo 20:25 ‘And if you make Me an altar of stone, do not build it of cut stone, for if you use your chisel on it, you have profaned it.
Exo 20:26 ‘Nor do you go up by steps to My altar, lest your nakedness be exposed on it.’
Aseret Ha Divarot - The Ten Sayings (what translators wrongfully translated as the Ten commandments).
The first saying is the cornerstone and foundation of all YHVH’s Messianic redemptive revelation to mankind. The truth in this first saying is so important that if we don’t get it right everything else we believe will stand on a shaky spiritual foundation.
Isa 45:5 ‘I am יהוה, and there is none else – there is no Elohim besides Me. I gird you, though you have not known Me,
Isa 43:11 “I, I am יהוה, and besides Me there is no saviour.
Col 1:14 in whom we have redemption through His blood, the forgiveness of sins,
Col 1:15 who is the likeness of the invisible Elohim, the first-born of all creation.1 Footnote: 1Heb. 1:6, Rev. 3:14.
Col 1:16 Because in Him were created all that are in the heavens and that are on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or rulerships or principalities or authorities – all have been created through Him and for Him.
Col 1:17 And He is before all, and in Him all hold together.
Col 1:18 And He is the Head of the body, the assembly, who is the beginning, the first-born from the dead, that He might become the One who is first in all.
Col 1:19 Because in Him all the completeness was well pleased to dwell,
The first saying explicitly states that YHVH and YHVH alone is the One who delivers us from darkness and bondage. YHVH has chosen His only brought forth son Yahshua Ha Mashiach to be the mediator of His great salvation to all those whom He chooses –
Joh 6:44 “No one is able to come to Me unless the Father who sent Me draws him. And I shall raise him up in the last day.
Now there are ten sayings and two tablets. In Hebraic thinking and life that which is heavenly appears on the right hand side and that which is meant to be the earthly expression of that which is heavenly appears on the left hand side.
Let us consider that the first saying that is on the right hand tablet - saying number one – see 20:2 What is the corresponding saying on the left hand tablet? It is the sixth saying. “You shall not murder”.
When we compare the first saying with the sixth saying we conclude that when you believe or proclaim that there is anyone besides YHVH who is powerful and perfect enough to deliver us from all forms of bondage we are as good as murderers to misrepresent this truth.
Yahshua was always declaring that he only did those things that his Father YHVH revealed to him.
Joh 5:30 “Of Myself I am unable to do any matter. As I hear, I judge, and My judgment is righteous, because I do not seek My own desire, but the desire of the Father who sent Me.
Joh 3:35 “The Father loves the Son, and has given all into His hand.
Joh 3:36 “He who believes in the Son possesses everlasting life, but he who does not obey the Son shall not see life, but the wrath of Elohim remains on him.”
2. The second saying is that we must not come to have any other mighty (false god) before His face.
For centuries religious men have produced theological truths of YHVH and have replaced them by proclaiming Yahshua as the deity that has saved us and then they have forced others to worship and honour Yahshua above YHVH. History tells of multitudes of believers that were murdered for refusing to honour “Jesus” above YHVH.
Joh 4:23 “But the hour is coming, and now is, when the true worshippers shall worship the Father in spirit and truth, for the Father also does seek such to worship Him.
Joh 4:24 “Elohim is Spirit, and those who worship Him need to worship in spirit and truth.”
The transgression of this saying brings destruction upon generations of people. Why does it mention three to four generations? I believe it is possible that it takes at least three to four generations of our fathers returning to the Torah and ways of YHVH before we have a chance of coming out from under the curse of this idolatry. I also believe that in the past century there has been a faithful remnant who has laid a foundation for our restoration. We have had various revivals; the birth of Israel as a nation; the outpouring of the Ruach of YHVH in various places and a return to Torah by many ex gentiles.
If we compare the second saying to the seventh saying, we find that misrepresenting YHVH is like committing adultery.
3. The third saying is that we must not make the name of YHVH futile. The Hebrew word for “futile” can also mean emptiness, vanity and falsehood.
When we refuse to call YHVH by the names which He has given to us in His Word, we rob Him of the essence of who He is. This is the worst possible kind of theft and dishonesty.- identity theft - He has told us who He is and by what name He is to be called yet we call Him by several other names. We may not exactly know how to pronounce His name YHVH, but we have the Hebrew letters and transliterations of His name. Why go and call Him something completely different?
It is not up to mankind to give Him different names. His name contains great truths about who He is when we change the names we rob YHVH and others of the truth of who He is.
That is why the third saying is compared to the eighth saying – you shall not steal.
4. The fourth saying commands us to keep the Sabbath. This is compared to the ninth saying which says we are not to be false witnesses. I believe those who refuse to honour the Sabbath as YHVH has commanded are false witness of his truth and of who He really is. It is a sign between YHVH and His people for all generations (Shemot/Exodus 31:13).
5. The fifth saying is that we must honour our parents. It is easier to understand this command when we understand what a Hebrew parent was called to be. The Hebrew parent was to first provide a sound Torah foundation for their children (see the full shema). Then the parents were to provide education and training in a life skill. The parents were also responsible for providing marriage partners for their children.
So if your parents did their duty then you would not break the tenth commandment - Exo 20:17 “You do not covet your neighbour’s house, you do not covet your neighbour’s wife, nor his male servant, nor his female servant, nor his ox, nor his donkey, or whatever belongs to your neighbour.”